Economy of India during 19th century

Starvation, Poverty, Calamities

The Defeat of Bengal developed a platform for English to rule over Indian climate,industry,agriculture, education and each and every aspect of life. These incidents lead the company to establish a business environment in Indian market. The main Industries at the time were Handlooms, lather, Agriculture and small scale Industries likewise. India was the cluster of cotton industry at that time. Cotton and yarn Industry was giving people the livelihood. Now a time came when technology replacing the man forces in Industries. The weavers were to pass hunger nights. People preferred English articles and products to Indian Handmade articles. Continuously the Company overtook the Indian market in its control. The raw material exported to Britain and the consumer goods Imported. The Imported consumer goods usually available at a higher cost than those were of Indian. People are compelled to buy these articles. This was enriching and empowering the company and making India poorer day by day.

The condition of farmers was worse than anyone else. The taxation was so complicated and the rates were higher than they (farmers) could not afford. The Jamindars(Landlords), the saudagars(Businessmen) and the Soodkhors(The person who lends money at very high rate) were sucking the bloods of farmers. Even they had to pay the Lagaan(Tax for agricultural product) if they lose their crop in natural calamities or in drought. So were compelled to sell their Lands to Jamindars or to rich Farmers. The bigger part of population were passing hunger nights and struggling with starvation. At the same time period when all the developed countries of today were growing and implementing Machinery, technologies. Indian farmers are using hand-made cultivator of wood. They used their animals to pull the hand-made agricultural tools. There were no canals and tube-wells for irrigation. The main sources of irrigation were wells and rains. The farmers were totally depended on Monsoon and climate. The dependency of population on agriculture was increasing. The rising of the fiscals and poverty of farmers resulted into very low production.

The level of poverty was on its peak. Early in the 7th decade of 19th century in west Uttar Pradesh over two lakh people died due to Starvation. After 4 to five year later in Orissa, Bengal, Bihar, and Madras over 20 lakh people died out of of which 10 lakh people died only in Orissa. At the end of the decade   again 14 lakh people died in Uttar Pradesh,Mumbai, Masore and Panjab. In the next decades the most devastating drought occurred in Madras, Hyderabad, Maharashtra, Uttarpradesh, and in Panjab. 8 lakh peple died in Maharashtra. 35 lakh people died in Madras and the 20 percent population of Masore died.  In up 12 lakh people died due to drought and starvarion.

At the end of century 10 billions of people affected from starvation and drought out of which 45 lakh people died. According to a British Writer William Digbi total 2,88,25000 people died.

According to Charles Illiate-“Half of the population din’t know what is a complete diet”.

[Source of this article is Vipin Chandra’s History of Modern India.]

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